What is Extra Pulmonary TB

What is Extra Pulmonary TBMMImage-Origin

Tuberculosis is an airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, leading to pulmonary TB. However, when the infection spreads to other parts of the body beyond the lungs, it is termed as extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis stands as one of the most prevalent infectious diseases globally, contributing significantly to mortality rates. Approximately 15% of all tuberculosis cases are extrapulmonary.

Various types of extrapulmonary tuberculosis include:

  • Renal tuberculosis.
  • Pericarditis tuberculosis.
  • Peritonitis tuberculosis.
  • Lymph node TB.
  • Bone and joint tuberculosis.
  • Liver TB.
  • TB meningitis.
  • Gastrointestinal tuberculosis .

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is a chronic condition that poses several complications for patients. Diseases such as peritonitis and meningitis can be particularly harmful from the onset. Hence, it’s crucial for individuals affected by TB to undergo diagnosis and treatment promptly to prevent adverse outcomes.

Extrapulmonary TB disproportionately affects individuals with weakened immune systems, HIV, diabetes, malnutrition, the very young or elderly, those undergoing chemotherapy or cortisone treatment, and similar conditions. Common forms of extrapulmonary TB include osteoarticular, lymph node tuberculosis, renal tuberculosis, and cutaneous tuberculosis. Meningitis may occur concurrently with pulmonary TB or independently. In children, it often manifests between the ages of one and five.

Symptoms of extra pulmonary TB

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) occurs when the TB infection spreads from the lungs to other areas of the body. Here are the symptoms of some common types of extrapulmonary TB:

Lymph node TB

Lymph nodes are oval glands integral to the immune system, responsible for eliminating unwanted bacteria from the body. Symptoms of lymph node tuberculosis (TB) encompass:

  •  Continuous and painless enlargement of lymph nodes, observable notably in the neck and other areas of the body.
  •  Untreated swollen nodes may eventually discharge fluid through the skin.

Gastrointestinal TB

Symptoms of gastrointestinal TB include:

  • Abdominal pain.
  • Bleeding from the anus.
  • Diarrhoea.

Genitourinary TB

Symptoms of genitourinary TB include:

  • Burning sensation while urinating.
  • Blood in the urine.
  • Groin pain.
  • Frequent urge to pass urine at night.

Central Nervous System TB

The central nervous system comprises the brain and the spinal cord. Symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) affecting the central nervous system may include:

  • Fever.
  • Stiff neck.
  • Headache.
  • Changes in mental and emotional state.
  • Fits.
  • Blurred vision.