What causes Juvenile Arthritis

What causes Juvenile Arthritis?

The exact cause of most forms of juvenile arthritis remains elusive. Currently, there is no evidence suggesting that factors such as foods, toxins, allergies, or vitamin deficiencies contribute to any type of juvenile arthritis. Most experts believe that juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), the most common type, is triggered by a combination of factors, including an overly active immune system, viral or bacterial infections, and genetic predisposition.

Autoimmune Process: Juvenile arthritis is classified as an autoimmune disorder, wherein the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks its own cells and tissues, considering them foreign invaders. In the case of juvenile arthritis, the immune system targets joint tissues, resulting in inflammation characterized by redness, heat, pain, and swelling.

Viral or Bacterial Infections: It is theorized that certain viral or bacterial infections may serve as triggers for the development of juvenile arthritis in individuals with a genetic predisposition. While studies have investigated the potential role of various pathogens such as mycoplasmas, cytomegalovirus, parvovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and rubella virus, conclusive evidence linking specific infections to juvenile arthritis is currently lacking.

Genetic (Inherited) Factors: Children with a family history of JIA are believed to have a higher risk of developing the condition themselves. Observations of increased occurrence of other autoimmune diseases among relatives of children with JIA suggest a genetic susceptibility to autoimmune disorders, including JIA.

Other Forms of Juvenile Arthritis: Conditions such as juvenile spondyloarthropathies, juvenile psoriatic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus are also thought to arise from autoimmune processes and genetic predisposition. These conditions involve inflammation and affect various parts of the body, including the joints, muscles, skin, and internal organs.