What are the prognostic factors for aplastic anemia

What is the Prognosis of Aplastic Anaemia?

What is the Prognosis of Aplastic Anaemia?

The prognosis of aplastic anemia varies depending on several factors including its causes, the patient’s overall health, disease severity, age, and response to therapy. Cases triggered by medications, low-dose radiation, or infectious mononucleosis often respond well to treatment within a short period.

Treatment for aplastic anemia typically involves bone marrow transplantation or immunosuppressive therapies, with blood transfusions also administered in certain cases. In severe instances where blood cell counts are extremely low and the patient’s condition has worsened significantly, aplastic anemia can be fatal.

The success rate of bone marrow transplantation is notably higher when the donor is a sibling, with 70 to 90 percent of patients surviving successfully, while the outcome is less favorable for those receiving bone marrow from unrelated donors. In cases where bone marrow transplantation isn’t feasible, approximately 50-60 percent of patients respond positively to immunosuppressive therapy alone.

For individuals with severe aplastic anemia who do not respond to available treatments, the likelihood of mortality within 18-24 months post-treatment is significant. Older patients ineligible for bone marrow transplants, those without suitable bone marrow matches, and individuals undergoing immunosuppressive therapies have a five-year survival rate.

Furthermore, individuals with aplastic anemia face an increased risk of developing leukemia compared to the general population. Women who develop this blood disorder during pregnancy also have a heightened likelihood of experiencing it again in future pregnancies.