How is urethral cancer treated

What is the treatment for Urethral Cancer?

What is the treatment for Urethral Cancer?

Three standard treatments are employed:

1. Surgery:
– Open excision: Removal of the cancer via surgical means.
– Electro-resection with fulguration: Employing electric current to excise the cancer or eliminate it by burning with high-energy electricity using a specialized tool.
– Laser surgery: Utilizing a laser beam for precise, bloodless tissue cutting or removal.
– Lymph node dissection: Removal of lymph nodes in the pelvic and groin regions.
– Cystourethrectomy: Surgical removal of both the bladder and urethra.
– Cystoprostatectomy: Surgical extraction of the bladder and prostate.
– Anterior exenteration: Excision of the urethra, bladder, and vagina, sometimes followed by reconstructive plastic surgery.
– Partial penectomy: Partial removal of the penis surrounding the urethra, often accompanied by plastic reconstructive procedures.
– Radical penectomy: Complete removal of the entire penis, occasionally followed by reconstructive plastic surgery. In cases where the urethra is removed, a new route for urine passage is typically created, known as urinary diversion. If the bladder is removed, a new method for storing and passing urine from the body is devised. This can involve using a segment of the small intestine to form a tube for urine passage through an ostomy or urostomy. Alternatively, a continent reservoir may be fashioned inside the body using part of the small intestine, from which urine can be drained via a catheter through a stoma.

2. Chemotherapy or Radiation Therapy Post-Surgery:
– Even after complete surgical removal of visible cancer, some patients may undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy to eradicate any remaining cancer cells. This post-surgery treatment, aimed at reducing the risk of cancer recurrence, is termed adjuvant therapy.

3. Radiation Therapy:
– Radiation therapy utilizes high-energy x-rays or other radiation types to exterminate cancer cells. There are two main approaches:
– External radiation therapy: Utilizes a machine external to the body to direct radiation toward the cancer.
– Internal radiation therapy: Involves placing a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters directly into or near the cancerous site. The selection of radiation therapy method depends on the cancer type and stage.