Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar

What is Type 2 diabetes?
What is Type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes, a prevalent metabolic ailment, is characterized by elevated blood sugar levels, distinguishing it as the most common form among various types of diabetes, and is often deemed a contemporary epidemic.

The condition arises from either insufficient insulin production or the body’s cells exhibiting resistance to insulin. Insulin, secreted by the pancreas’ beta cells, facilitates glucose utilization by cells, regulating blood glucose levels. Glucose, a simple sugar circulating in the bloodstream, serves as energy for bodily cells. Initially, individuals with type 2 diabetes may produce adequate insulin, but their cells fail to respond effectively, leading to insulin resistance and subsequent blood sugar elevation. Over time, insulin production may decrease as the disease progresses.

Although the precise cause remains unknown, familial predisposition is common among those with type 2 diabetes. Additional risk factors include advancing age (with a significant increase in risk past 65 years), concurrent conditions such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol, a history of gestational diabetes, poor dietary habits, excessive alcohol consumption, and a sedentary lifestyle.

Type 2 diabetes typically advances gradually and can manifest asymptomatically, leading many affected individuals to remain unaware for an extended period. However, potential early indicators may include heightened hunger and thirst, increased urination, fatigue, delayed wound healing, and susceptibility to infections.

Upon suspicion of diabetes, diagnostic tests, such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance, or random plasma glucose tests, are conducted to measure blood glucose levels. Diagnosis criteria are met if specific blood glucose thresholds are exceeded on multiple occasions or if symptoms align with elevated blood glucose levels.

Treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes often involve lifestyle modifications, including dietary adjustments and physical activity, alongside medications such as oral agents or insulin therapy when necessary. The primary goal of management is to maintain blood glucose levels within a normal range, thereby mitigating the risk of complications associated with prolonged hyperglycemia.