5 prevalent gynecological issues that every woman should be aware of

It’s crucial for women to be knowledgeable about common gynecological health issues to facilitate timely diagnosis and management of these conditions.

5 prevalent gynecological issues that every woman should be aware of

Most women will encounter gynecological issues at some stage in their lives. While some problems may be minor and easily treated, others may require surgical intervention. It’s crucial for women to remain vigilant for any changes in their bodies and promptly report them to their healthcare provider. Gain insights into these issues from Dr. Sushruta Mokadam, Senior Consultant Obstetrician & Gynecologist at Motherhood Hospital, Kharadi, Pune, and empower yourself to take control of your health. Gynecological problems related to the female reproductive system are frequent occurrences and require attention. Here’s a rundown of common health issues in women that merit your attention.


Do you experience lower back or abdominal pain during your menstrual cycle? While common, for some women, this pain can be severe, significantly impacting daily activities. This condition is known as dysmenorrhea, and its symptoms are categorized as spasmodic, characterized by cramping pain on the first day of menstruation that improves over time, and congestive, where pain begins before menstruation and subsides with the onset of bleeding. While spasmodic dysmenorrhea tends to lessen with age and particularly after childbirth, congestive dysmenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition and requires evaluation. To manage dysmenorrhea, consider the following measures:

  • Apply a heating pad to the abdomen, lower back, or the area of pain during menstruation.
  • Gently massage the abdominal or back area to alleviate discomfort.
  • If pain becomes unbearable, consider taking ibuprofen to alleviate it.

Ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts can vary in size and may develop at different points in a woman’s menstrual cycle. Interestingly, some women may live their entire lives without realizing they have ovarian cysts. These cysts are fluid-filled sacs that form within ovarian tissue. Most are functional or follicular cysts, originating from unruptured follicles, and typically regress without treatment. However, some cysts, known as hemorrhagic cysts, involve bleeding within the cyst. Occasionally, cysts may be tumors that grow large and require evaluation and surgical removal. They can be easily diagnosed via ultrasound when symptoms such as pain or menstrual irregularities arise. In cases where an ovarian cyst undergoes torsion or twisting, it can become a medical emergency. Endometriotic or chocolate cysts occur when cyclical bleeding within the ovaries, due to ectopic endometrial tissue, leads to the collection of blood, resulting in pain and sometimes infertility.


Endometriosis is a condition characterized by the growth of the inner lining of the uterus, known as endometrium, outside the uterine walls, typically in the ovaries or fallopian tubes, and occasionally in other areas such as the cervix, bladder, bowel, or rectum. The exact cause of endometriosis remains unknown. Symptoms of endometriosis include abdominal cramps, pain during sexual intercourse, bleeding between periods, and digestive problems.

While all women are at risk of developing endometriosis, it is more commonly observed in women aged 25-40 years. Factors such as family history, pregnancy history, and menstrual history can help assess the risk of developing endometriosis.

Infection of the urinary tract

Infection of the urinary tract

UTI, or Urinary Tract Infection, is caused by bacterial overgrowth in the bladder. Factors that contribute to it include pregnancy, frequent sexual activity, and diabetes. Symptoms may include a burning sensation and increased frequency of urination, lower abdominal cramps, pain during intercourse, and sometimes fever with chills. While dehydration in summer often exacerbates UTIs, they remain common in winter as well.

Maintaining good personal hygiene is crucial for preventing UTIs. If you experience recurrent UTIs, it’s advisable to avoid public restrooms. If necessary, use a disinfectant spray on the toilet seat before use. Drinking plenty of water is also beneficial for preventing and managing UTIs.


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs when the ovaries produce an abnormal amount of androgens, male sex hormones typically found in small amounts in women, along with increased insulin due to genetic insulin resistance. Individuals with PCOS often have multiple small cysts, resembling a “string of pearls,” in their ovaries due to lack of ovulation, weight gain, hirsutism, and irregular periods. PCOS is considered a prediabetic condition and requires lifestyle modifications alongside hormonal treatment.

While women experience various health issues throughout their lives, some are particularly common and treatable. This article highlights five such problems, emphasizing the importance of monitoring one’s health and recognizing unusual symptoms for timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment.